National Institute of Statistics, Italy
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Data source(s) used: The business confidence survey in the manufacturing sector: The survey is carried out in the framework of the joint harmonized EU Programme of business and consumer tendency surveys (the latest normative reference is the Commission’s decision COM (2006) 379 , 2006 July 12). The survey collects qualitative data on the current and expected cyclical situation of the manufacturing firms on monthly basis (e.g. assessments and expectations on firm’s order books, production and liquidity conditions; assessments on stocks of finished products; expectations on firm’s employment and selling prices), along with expectations on the Italian general economic situation. Quarterly, some other variables regarding the main aspects of the firm’s general situation are investigated (production capacity, numbers of worked hours, new orders, stocks of commodities and unfinished products, export order books, the factors limiting the production, months of production secured and capacity utilization), along with some information about the firm’s competitive position. The reporting unit and the sample unit is the firm. The target universe is made up by the Italian firms with five or more employees, classified in Section C of the NACE rev.2 classification. The survey is monthly. ISTAT manages the data collection by CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing). The sample is represented by a panel of about 4000 firms. The sample design is stratified by economic sectors (identified by the divisions of section C in NACE rev.2), geographic partitions and firm sizes (in terms of employees). The sampling frame is extracted by the official ASIA archive (the statistical archive of active enterprises elaborated by ISTAT). The confidence climate is built as an arithmetic average of the balances on the assessments on the order books and the stocks of finished products (with a negative sign) and the expectation on the production over the next 3 months. Monthly, the confidence climate index for the whole manufacturing sector, the four geographical areas (North-west, North-east, Centre, South and Islands) and for the main industrial groupings (MIGs, Consumer Goods, Intermediate Goods and Capital Goods) is calculated. All series are seasonally adjusted using the Tramo-Seats method.
Other data characteristics: All the series are estimated using the gross value added at factor cost as weight. More specifically, estimates until 2009 are obtained using gross value added referring to the year 2005; starting from 2010 estimates were obtained using gross value added referring to the year 2012. The series under the heading Previous series - climate (2005 = 100), instead, are weighed with similar weights pertaining to the year 2005 for all the period released. At the same time starting from the publication of march 2015, the confidence climate index both for the whole sector, the four geographical areas (North-west, North-east, Centre, South and Islands) and for the main industrial groupings (MIGs, Consumer Goods, Intermediate Goods and Capital Goods) is released with base 2010=100.Balances are calculated by considering the frequencies not rounded.: The following quarterly series: Export turnover (in %),Assessments on export turnover,Expectations on export turnover,Export/domestic price ratio,Export destination,Major competitors,Factors influencing export are available on March, on June, on September and on December. The following quarterly series: Production capacity – current,Numbers of worked hours,Orders books, past 3 months,Export order books, next 3 months,Factors limiting production,Months of production secured,Capacity utilisation,Stocks of commodities and unfinished products,Competitive position are available on April, on July, on October and on January.: Variables concerning credit: since 2015, October, variables are surveyed quarterly; more specifically they are surveyed in March, June, September and December. Raw series are available starting from 2008, March.From 2016 on, survey results for the 3-digit sectors of the following eight two-digit sectors belonging to section C of the Nace rev.2 classification are no more provided: manufacture of food products, manufacture of textiles; manufacture of chemicals and chemical products; manufacture of fabricated metal products (except machinery and equipment); manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products; manufacture of electrical equipment and of non-electric domestic appliances; manufacture of other transport equipment; other manufacturing.